By American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers
This instruction manual covers the refrigeration gear and structures for purposes except human convenience. This booklet contains info on cooling, freezing, and storing meals; commercial purposes of refrigeration; and low-temperature refrigeration. essentially a reference for the training engineer, this quantity can be worthy for somebody concerned with cooling and garage of meals items. This version contains new chapters: Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration structures and Terminology of Refrigeration. additionally new for this quantity are bankruptcy order and groupings which have been revised for extra logical move and use.
Read Online or Download 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition) PDF
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Extra info for 2010 ASHRAE Handbook - Refrigeration (I-P Edition)
Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Fig. 25 Demand Defrost Cycle Fig. 43 Demand Defrost Cycle (For coils with 15 tons refrigeration capacity and below) Fig. 45 Hot-Gas Condensate Return Drainer Fig. 44 Equipment Room Hot-Gas Pressure Control System Fig. 44 Equipment Room Hot-Gas Pressure Control System Fig. 45 Hot-Gas Condensate Return Drainer by a pressure switch; however, for large coils in spiral or individual quick freezing systems, manual initiation is preferred. Note that control valves are available to provide the soft-gas feature in combination with the main hot-gas valve capacity.
Where CO2 might leak into a stairwell, pit, or other confined space, an additional detector should be located in the space to warn personnel in the event of a high concentration. Water in CO2 Systems Fig. 6 CO2 Cascade System with Two Temperature Levels (Adapted from Vestergaard 2007) Valves Valves in CO2 systems are generally similar to those in ammonia plants, but must be suitably rated for high pressure. , replacing solenoid valves with electrically driven ball valves). Expanding saturated CO2 vapor can solidify, depending on operating pressure, so the relief valve should be located outside with no downstream piping.
For sizing relief valves, use the following equation: C = f DL (1) CO2, like HFCs, is very sensitive to any moisture within the system. Air must be evacuated before charging the refrigerant at initial start-up, to remove atmospheric moisture. Maintenance staff must use caution when adding oil that may contain moisture. Investigations of valve problems in some CO2 installations revealed that many problems are caused by water freezing in the system; welldesigned and well-maintained CO2 systems charged with dry CO2 and filter-driers run trouble free (Bellstedt et al.