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By Maurice Natanson

"Why is my discomfort perpetual, and my wound incurable, which refuseth to be healed?" -Jeremiah "Existentialism" at the present time refers to faddism, decadentism, morbidity, the "philosophy of the graveyard"; to phrases like worry, dread, nervousness, pain, agony, aloneness, loss of life; to novelists akin to Jean-Paul Sartre, Dostoievski, Camus, Kafka; to philosophers like Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Marcel, Jaspers, and Sartre-and since it refers to, and is anxious with, all of those principles and people, existentialism has misplaced any clearer which means it may possibly have initially possessed. since it has such a lot of definitions, it may well not be outlined. As Sartre writes: "Most those that use the observe existentialism will be em­ barrased in the event that they needed to clarify it, due to the fact, now that the notice is all of the rage, even the paintings of a musician or painter is being referred to as existentialist. A gossip columnist . . . indicators himself The Exis­ tentialist, in order that by way of this time the be aware has been so stretched and has taken on so extensive a which means, that it not potential something in any respect. " 2 This kingdom of definitional confusion isn't an unintentional or negligible subject. An try out might be made during this creation to account for the confustion and to teach why any definition of existentialism in­ volves us in a tangle. First, even if, it is vital to country in a tenta­ tive and extremely common demeanour what issues of view are right here meant whilst reference is made to existentialism.

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421. , 446. 70 But the guilt of the masochist is just part of his paradoxical condition, which makes of masochism a necessary failure. , as an object for his subjectivity. It is, then, in vain that the masochist permits himself to be mistreated or tortured, since he is mistreated or tortured by the Other, who ultimately is object for him. - The attitude of indifference is induced by a "blindness" toward Others. In being indifferent, the pour-soi retreats from Others, chooses to ignore reality.

It is not to be confused with what is ordinarily meant by freedom. Sartre thus has given us a radically new concept of freedom: the pour-soi's situation or status as it "exists" itself ontologically. " Such is the freedom to which the pour-soi is condemned. 91 EN, 590. , 621. , 624. , 628. , 630. , 578. Chapter IV EXISTENTIAL PSYGHOANALYSIS I. ) rather than individually determined projects and choices. " 3 How does existential psychoanalysis differ from phenomenological ontology? The answer to this question will clarify the differences between orthodox and existential psychoanalyses.

EN,565. , 514. , 515. "To be, for the pour-soi, is to nihilate the en-soi which it is. In these conditions, freedom could be nothing other than this nihilation. It is through it that the pour-so; escapes its being as its essence; it is through it that the pour-so; is always something other than what one can say of it, for . • the pour-soi is that which is already beyond the name one gives to it, the property one recognizes in it. To say that the pour-so; has to be what it is; to say that it is what it is not in notbeing what it is; to say that in it existence precedes and conditions essence or •..

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