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Boyarskiye). Both of these categories, like the Cossacks, expected to sup- ' plement their income with plunder. 16 Another factor which tended towards oppressive and dishonest practices in Russian colonial possessions was the system of 'feeding' (kormleniye), by which provincial governors appointed by the Moscow government received no salary, but were expected to 'nourish themselves' from the taxes and dues which they exacted in excess of the rates required by the treasury. Although this system was abolished in Russia proper in 1555, among the ranks of the gentry eligible for appointment as military governors of the newly conquered .

32 SIBERIA INV ADED the same attitude to Yermak: he was 'a man of heroic power, bold, courageous, well-versed in the art of war';Z and his expedition eams especial praise because ostensibly it was carried out not by government troops but 'by men thrown up by the common people - Don and Volga Cossacks led by Yennak, who liberated the Khantys, Mansis, Bashkirs, West Siberian Tatars (lUld others from the yoke of Chingis Khan's descendants .. unaided private enterprise. It was Ivan IV who in 1572 ordered the Stroganovs to find a Cossack ataman to lead an expedition against rebellious natives and force them into submission to Moscow; and the Tsar readily agreed to the Stroganovs' proposal for an invasion of Siberia and authorised the use of guns and the making of gunpowder for this purpose.

10<)-10,379,383,493-5. Khomich, Nmtsy, pp. 114-32; Narody Sunri, pp. 613-18, 650--3. 18 SIBERIA DISCOVERED Samoyeds had sacred sites on elevated ground where effigies of gods were placed and bones, skulls and anders from sacrificed animals accumulated. 1ead operations. Like civilised nations, the Samoyed clans from time to time came into conflict with each other or with their neighbours - west of the Urals this meant th~ Russians and their vassals the Komis, east of the Urals the Khantys, Selkups or Tungus.

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