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By Ernst Emil Herzfeld

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Additional resources for A new inscription of Xerxes from Persepolis, (The Oriental institute of the University of Chicago. Studies in ancient oriental civilization. no. 5 )

Example text

T h e first element in /au/ is very similar to /a:/, but slightly more close and more front. (3) O p e n ing diphthongs move towards a more open vowel. They d o not exist in English. Another categorisation of diphthongs divides t h e m into diminuendo, descending, or falling diphthongs and crescendo, ascending, or rising diphthongs [fallende u n d steigende Doppellaute]. In falling diphthongs, the first element is longer and louder than the second. All English diphthongs are usually falling diphthongs.

Openness Try saying the sounds [i:, ae, u:, a:] represented by the underlined letters in the words below, prolonging the vowel so that you can feel the position of the tongue. Notice how [i:, u:] are both close vowels, that is, the tongue is quite close to the palate. With [ae, a : ] your tongue is further from the palate and y o u r jaw is lowered. 2 Frontness vs. backness Try saying the sequence of close vowels [i:, u:, i:, u:, i:, u:, i:, u:], and notice h o w y o u r tongue moves backwards and forwards.

Lessonjour 34 front close (1) i (9) y mid-close central (17)1(18)« (16)UI(8)« (15) (2) e (1 mid-open open back Tf (14) (4) a (12) CE A (7)° (6) 3 (5) a (13)D Fig. 3 Cardinal vowel chart Since the cardinal vowels are extremes, they occupy the very edges of the vowel chart. They are numbered counter-clockwise, beginning in the upper left corner. The vowels 1 to 8 are the primary cardinal vowels. They can be described as close front, mid-close front, mid-open front, open front, open back, mid-open back, mid-close back, and close back.

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