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By Michael Lynch

Provide your scholars the simplest likelihood of luck with this attempted and verified sequence, combining in-depth research, enticing narrative and accessibility. entry to heritage is the preferred, relied on and wide-ranging sequence for A-level heritage students.

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- Edexcel: Russia in Revolution, 1894-1924

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Key question Key date What led to the divide in the SD Party? The SDs split into the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks factions: 1903 putting his case to the party members. Lenin criticised Plekhanov for being more interested in reform than revolution. He said that under Plekhanov the SDs, instead of transforming the workers into a revolutionary force for the overthrow of capitalism, were following a policy of ‘economism’. Lenin wanted living and working conditions to get worse, not better. In that way the bitterness of the workers would increase, and so drive the Russian proletariat to revolution.

Lenin deliberately emphasised the difference between himself and Martov by resigning from the editorial board of Iskra and starting his own journal, Vyperod (Forward), as an instrument for Bolshevik attacks upon the Mensheviks. A Bolshevik daily paper, Pravda (the Truth), was first published in 1912. Lenin and the Bolsheviks The later success of Bolshevism in the October Revolution has tempted writers to overstate the importance of Lenin in the period before 1917. For example, Trotsky, who joined Lenin in 1917 after having been a Menshevik, argued in his later writings that the Bolsheviks had been systematically preparing the ground for revolution since 1903.

Key term Historians disagree over how realistic Stolypin’s policies were. The standard view of most scholars in this field has been that he had little real chance of reforming agriculture since the Russian peasantry was so backward and he had so little time to change things. Others, however, have argued that, while it is true that the conservatism of most peasants prevented them from embracing progressive change, Stolypin was right, nonetheless, in thinking that he could wager on ‘the strong’ since there was, indeed, a layer of strong peasant farmers.

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