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By E Phillip Muntz; John F Wendt

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4. The Separative Capacity of an Element of Column Length in a Continuous Countercurrent Column Process. Let us now attempt to compute the separa- tive capacity of a length, dz, of column in a simple, continuous countercurrent process. , vapor and liquid) when equilibrium between them exists. 1) it having previously been shown that the approximation introduces a fractional error less than $'x' in the concentration difference, y' - X I . 4. In an actual column the two phases are normally quite dispersed and intermixed in order to provide a large interfacial area for mass transfer between them.

L * , *-*. exception of the immediate neighborhood of the 'product anc waste withdrawal points. This fact will be justified in the next section. 10) Thus, for any form of the equilibrium-line equation that we choose to use, we can obtain three pairs of gradient equations, depending on the number of assumptions that are justified. We have previously discussed five different forms of the equilibrium relationship, so we are now in a position to write fifteen pairs of gradient equations. These equations will be examined in more detail in Section IV dealing with square cascade sections.

We now inquire for what value of the con- centration difference, y - x , will the separative capacity be a maximum. a J,. 35 :. 9) We have seen that in a stage-wise process the two streams leaving a stage are related by the stage separation factor: let us consider, in the case of a continuous countercurrent process, what length of column is necessary in order that the streams leaving the section be similarly related by the process equilibrium separation factor. In other words, what length of column is required in order for the concentrations of the two streams leaving to be in equilibrium.

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