By J. Bruce Amstutz
Whilst Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in overdue 1979, the invasion was once, straight away, an try and keep a tottering Marxist govt and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.
Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts off his remedy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet profession with an historic review of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand file of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and fiscal views. one of the vital concerns Dr. Amstutz discusses are the varied Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.
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Additional resources for Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation
After the 1978 communist coup both leftist President Hafizullah Amin and the succeeding Babrak Karmal considered him a hero. While Amanullah's well-meaning attempts at modernization—such as secularizing law and educating women—engendered much domestic opposition and led to his downfall, his actions on foreign relations were popular and Barely two months after becoming king Amanullah boldly denounced his country's 1879 treaty obligation to follow British advice in conducting Afghanistan's foreign relations.
Not only was Afghanistan the first non-communist country anywhere to receive Soviet economic aid i • -. 24 Afghanistan before and after World War II, but by 1979 it ranked first among all non-communist countries in the total value of Soviet aid offered. 5 million concessionary (3 percent) loan for the construction of grain elevators, a flour mill, and a bakery. This aid was followed in that same year by three other Soviet aid agreements worth $8,2 million for two cement plants, a fruit cannery, and other items.
By the end of December 1979, when the Soviets invaded the country, 3,500 to 4,000 Soviet military advisers and technicians were attached to the Afghan military services. 77 The Soviet presence was so extensive that in some ministries the approval of Soviet advisers allegedly was necessary before major decisions could be made. A Soviet career diplomat, Vasily S. Safronchuk, who was the third-ranking official in the Soviet Embassy, was given an office in the Foreign Ministry. 7** THE KHALQ FACTION PURGES THE PARCHAM FACTION The Soviets found, however, that they could not control the new leftist Afghan leadership.