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Extra info for Annual Review of Immunology Volume 13 1995

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G. immuneselection of epitopeinactivating viral mutations, mayalso contribute to viral persistence, the data suggest that these processes can probablyoccur only in the context of an ineffective T cell responseand are, therefore, secondaryto it. The evidencebehind these conclusionsis discussed in the remainderof this review. STUDIESIN INFECTED PATIENTS The Antibody Response The antibody response to HBV envelope antigens is a T cell-dependent process (55). Becausethese anti-envelope antibodies are readily detectable in patients whoclear the virus and recover from acute hepatitis, and they are usually undetectable in patients with chronic HBV infection, they are thought to play a critical role in viral clearanceby complexing withfree viral particles and removing themfrom circulation or possibly by preventingtheir attachmentand uptake by susceptible cells (see Figure 1).

Importantly, the class II-restricted response to the viral polymeraseand X proteins has not been adequatelystudied, so a comparisonbetweenthe strength of these two responses and the responsesto the nucleocapsidand envelopeantigens is not possible at this time. The basis for the absence of a strong HBV envelope-specific T cell response in acutely infected patients whorespond quite vigorously to the nucleocapsid antigens is not readily understood. Ananti-envelope T cell responsemayoccur during the preclinical incubation period of disease (59).

Annual Reviews 26 36. 37. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 13:1-28. org by HINARI on 08/31/07. For personal use only. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 4~. NOSSAL studies on the antibody-forrr~ngpotential of fractionated, hapten-specific B lymphocytes. Immunology30:189-202 Nossal GJV, Ada GL, Austin CM. 1964. IV. Cellular localization of 125I- and t3q-labelled flagella in lymphnodes. Aust. J. Exp. Biol. 42:311-30 Ada GL, Nossal GJV, Austin CM. 1964. Antigens in immunity. V. The ability of cells in lymphoidfollicles to recognizeforeignness.

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