Download Ashrae Handbook - 1997 Fundamentals by Robert Parsons PDF

By Robert Parsons

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Sample text

Then 2 64 L V 32LνVL 8µV = ---------------= ---------------  ----  ------ ( H L ) f = ------  ---------2 VD ⁄ ν  D  2g ρg  R 2  D g (27) where Re = VD ⁄ ν and f = 64 ⁄ Re. Thus, for laminar flow, the friction factor varies inversely with the Reynolds number. With turbulent flow, friction loss depends not only on flow conditions, as characterized by the Reynolds number, but also on the nature of the conduit wall surface. 14 + 2 log ( D ⁄ ε ) – 2 log 1 + -------------------------------f Re ( ε ⁄ D ) f (29b) (28a) 6 (28b) Generally, f also depends on the wall roughness ε.

For a sharp entrance, the flow separation (Figure 8) causes a greater disturbance, but fully developed flow is achieved in about half the length required for a rounded entrance. (32) Chapter 33 and the Pipe Friction Manual (Hydraulic Institute 1961) have information for pipe applications. Chapter 32 gives information for airflow. The same type of fitting in pipes and ducts may give a different loss, because flow disturbances are controlled by the detailed geometry of the fitting. The elbow of a small pipe may be a threaded fitting that differs from a bend in a circular duct.

HL is the loss of energy per unit weight (J/N) of flowing fluid. In real-fluid flow, a frictional shear occurs at bounding walls, gradually influencing the flow further away from the boundary. A lateral velocity profile is produced and flow energy is converted into heat (fluid internal energy), which is generally unrecoverable (a loss). This loss in fully developed conduit flow is evaluated through the Darcy-Weisbach equation: 2 L V ( H L ) f = f  ----  ------  D  2g Fig. 12 Blower and Duct System for Example 1 (26) where L is the length of conduit of diameter D and f is the friction factor.

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