By L Barnes, Ian Cooper
Regardless of advances in fabrics and sterilisation, sufferers who obtain biomaterials of clinical gadget implants are nonetheless liable to constructing infection round the implantation web site. This booklet reports the basics of biomaterials and scientific gadget similar infections and strategies and fabrics for the remedy and prevention of an infection. the 1st a part of the publication presents readers with an advent to the subject together with analyses of biofilms, prognosis and therapy of an infection, pathology and topography. the second one a part of the booklet discusses a number validated and novel applied sciences and fabrics which were designed to avoid infection.
- Provides research of biofilms and their relevance to implant linked infections.
- Assesses applied sciences for controlling biofilms.
- Considers merits and downsides of in vivo an infection studies.
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Additional resources for Biomaterials and medical device. Barnes, Ian Cooper : associated infections
Khan R. and Cheesbrough J. (2003) Impact of changes in antibiotic policy on Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) over a five-year period in a district general hospital. Journal of Hospital Infection, 54(2): 104–10 Khanh Nguyen M. and Alsberg E. (2014) Bioactive factor delivery strategies from engineered polymer hydrogels for therapeutic medicine. Progress in Polymer Science, in press. , Ryu J. and Kim Y. (2002) Clinical implications of extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia.
The gene locus pslA-G is absent in some strains, for example the PA14 isolate (Stewart and Franklin, 2008). Pel is a glucose-rich polymer and with the genes encoding its production (pel) is shown to be present in all identified strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Friedman and Kolter, 2004). , 2007). Extracellular DNA also plays an important role in biofilm maturation and stabilisation of Gram-negative bacteria. Matsukawa and Greenberg (2004) demonstrated that in the extracellular matrix of mature Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1) extracellular DNA was the most prevalent polymer, with exopolysaccharides of great importance with regard to structural integrity.
For example, a pathogen is more likely to form a biofilm on a surface with increased roughness as it will be provided with an increased surface area for attachment and is able to reside in the crevices present to obtain protection from increased shear forces (Donlan, 2002). Therefore altering the surface of the device, in theory, should reduce the risk of microbial attachment and infection. However theory does not always translate to what is seen in practice. Initial studies showed that very smooth surfaces may significantly reduce bacterial adhesion, although further debate revealed that strains of microorganisms used had often been grown thousands of times until they had lost their ability to adhere.