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By Charles M. Brand

On the loss of life of emperor Manuel I Comnenus in 1180, the Byzantine Empire seemed to be a solidly built country; in 1204, slightly 1 / 4 century later, Constantinople fell to the forces of the Fourth campaign. model analyzes the inner and exterior pressures which beset Byzantium: the tyranny of Andronicus I comnenus, the incapable Angeli emperors, the strain of Turks and Bulgarians, and particularly the onslaught of the full of life West. assaults and threats from Normans, Frederick Barbarossa, and his son Henry VI, and finally the Fourth Crusaders have been bolstered by means of advertisement strain from Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

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That is certainly the impression conveyed by Lord Balfour of Glenawley, when advising a fellow Scots peer, the Earl of Annandale, on the management of the fishery that Annandale had acquired in Killibegs in County Donegal. 38 The Ulster experience of the first half of the seventeenth century showed that Scots and English did not operate as equals within this first 'British' settler community. Rather, the plantation society that emerged was dominated by the English, who tolerated a sequence of sub-communities where either Scots or Irish predominated, and which were expected to fulfil special functions for the benefit of the wider plantation effort.

1). 69 On the other hand, the mundane trade and colonial activity on the Atlantic came to be perceived in the later seventeenth century as an essentially English achievement which was contributing to the enrichment not only of England, but also of Scotland and Ireland. What happened there was also, in some respects, no more than a quantitative advance upon what had been under way in the sixteenth century, with trade and the passage of people being conducted in small and frequently old ships, ranging in size from twenty-five to 300 tons, that had been requisitioned from other commercial traffic, or from the fishing- and coal-fleets.

73. , Winthrop Papers (Boston, 1992), VI, pp. 309, 313, 314. THE O R I G I N S OF E M P I R E 19 viously a chaplain to the East India Company, praised the conversion methods that had been devised by Dutch Protestant missionaries in Amboina, which were an adaptation of the practices that had been used by Jesuit missionaries who worked in Asia under Spanish and Portuguese tutelage. 53 Many English commentators of the time took this balance for granted and, for the earlier part of the century, saw themselves as emulating the Spanish, rather than the Portuguese or the Dutch, in their continental preference.

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