Download Cannabis : evolution and ethnobotany by Robert C. Clarke, Mark D. Merlin PDF

By Robert C. Clarke, Mark D. Merlin

"'Cannabis: evolution and ethnobotany' is a complete, interdisciplinary exploration of the usual origins and early evolution of this well-known plant, highlighting its old function within the improvement of human societies. hashish has lengthy been prized for the robust and sturdy fiber in its stalks, its safe to eat and oil-rich seeds, and the psychoactive and medicinal compounds produced by way of its lady plants. The Read more...


hashish has been prized for the sturdy fiber in its stalks, and oil-rich seeds, and psychoactive and medicinal compounds produced through its lady plants. This booklet includes comprehensive, Read more...

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Models of early use and domestication (see Chapter 3), archeological data (see Chapter 4), and historical records (see Chapters 5 through 9), in conjunction with evolutionary studies involving reproductive strategies and geography (see Chapter 12), lead us to conclude that Cannabis originated somewhere in Central Asia rather than South or East Asia, although these regions may have served as glacial refugia where speciation occurred. China and India were both regions of early Cannabis evolution under domestication and foci for later diffusion, resulting in the broad diversity of phenotypes selected for various uses appearing across both East and South Asia.

Larger circles indicate increased density of populations (cartography by Matt Barbee). ) populations should also provide us with a good indication of the geographical region, or at least the ecological conditions, within which Cannabis evolved. The first criterion when searching for the geographical origin of a cultivated plant is to determine the range of its truly wild growth (de Candolle 1967). At first this may seem straightforward, with relatively easy solutions resulting from a survey of herbarium specimens, biodiversity surveys, and guidebooks to native floras.

Truly wild grapevines are dioecious and wind-­pollinated with bird-­ mediated dispersal (similar to Cannabis) while domesticated grapevines are self-­pollinating hermaphrodites (Grassi et al. 2008). How did this change occur? Selection for higher yield, more sugar content, and determinant maturation resulted in changes in berry color and berry and bunch size, as well as a crucial change from dioecious to hermaphrodite sexuality; this eliminated the need to maintain male plants as pollinators and allowed the self-­ fertilizing of mutant phenotypes.

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