By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Committee on Reference Materials for Ocean Science
Document from the Committee on Reference fabrics for Ocean technology, and Ocean reports Board. Softcover.
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Extra resources for Chemical Reference Materials Setting the Standards for Ocean Science
It is strongly recommended that sample collection be linked to intercomparisons of field-based methodologies by different groups of investigators. This would help justify the expense of the required ship time, and satisfy a critical analytical need as real-time methodologies become more widely used by oceanographers interested in small-scale temporal and spatial variability. It would also mean that a large amount of supplemental information would be available about the collected samples. RADIONUCLIDES There are three classes of radionuclides occurring in seawater: • long-lived primary radionuclides and their daughters that have existed since their formation, • cosmogenic radionuclides with relatively short half-lives that are formed continually by bombardment of matter with cosmic rays, and • artificial radionuclides produced by human activities such as nuclear bombs and nuclear power stations.
1996). , 1989a; Key and Rubin, 2002). Although thousands of these measurements have been made recently on DIC as part of the WOCE and JGOFS Global Survey programs, and there are plans to repeat measurements over the next decades (NOAA, 2001), there are no formal seawater-based reference materials available for these isotopes. 3) to include 13C and possibly 14C. This would be relatively simple: preliminary tests have shown the standards to provide reproducible 13C measurements. Inclusion of 14C in any reference material will require greater planning; while the reduction in sample size required for a radiocarbon measurement afforded by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has greatly increased the scope of radiocarbon studies, it has also increased the likelihood of inadvertently contaminating a sample.
These contrasting oceanographic perspectives share a susceptibility to artifacts deriving from the unique matrices (whether seawater or sediment) from which chemical information is extracted. HOW REFERENCE MATERIALS WORK Routine use of reference materials can help tie together data sets, allowing us to answer key biogeochemical questions, even when the mechanisms of matrix effects and other analytical complications are not fully understood. This fundamental advantage can be illustrated by considering a scenario (Fig.