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By Mary McAuliffe

Clash among England and France used to be a truth of existence for hundreds of years, yet few notice that its origins date from the time of the Vikings, while a Norse chieftain named Rollo verified himself and his progeny in Normandy. during this compelling and wonderful heritage, Mary McAuliffe takes the reader again to these darkish and turbulent instances whilst Rollo’s descendants, the dukes of Normandy, asserted their dominance over the vulnerable French monarchy—a dominance that turned particularly threatening after Duke William conquered England in 1066, giving him a royal crown.

Despite this crown, William the Conqueror and his royal successors remained dukes of Normandy, with feudal responsibilities to their overlord, the king of France. This clearly fostered an ongoing hostility among the French and English crowns that, as McAuliffe convincingly exhibits, grew to become ever extra explosive because the power and territorial holdings of the English monarchs grew. clash erupted frequently through the years, and Eleanor of Aquitaine’s desertion of 1 camp for the opposite simply extra gasoline to the long-simmering feud.

McAuliffe takes the reader again to this dramatic period, delivering the attention-grabbing historical past and context for this “clash of crowns.” She deals colourful insights into Richard Lionheart and Eleanor of Aquitaine in addition to lesser-known French and English monarchs, in particular Philip II of France. Philip proved a decided opponent of Richard Lionheart, and their cutthroat competition not just created deadly divisions in the 3rd campaign but in addition culminated in an incendiary faceoff at Richard’s newly equipped Château-Gaillard, the possible impregnable gateway to empire. the result could form the process English and French heritage in the course of the centuries that undefined.

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Additional info for Clash of Crowns: William the Conqueror, Richard Lionheart, and Eleanor of Aquitaine-A Story of Bloodshed, Betrayal, and Revenge

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Whether this was considered the heightened physical strength of the king, a more magical time for the drawing of the enchanted sword, or a combination of the two, Arthur had to prove himself three times, all upon traditional holidays. 22 Whether the upperclass actually feasted their social inferiors instead of focusing on the celebration with their equals, is individually based. 23 A positive reason for feasting and celebration during a major harvest holiday can be found in the Cely family letters, which reflect the Celys as masters who were concerned about the number of deaths people in Essex suffered, possibly servants, during a wave of the bubonic plague in the fifteenth century.

I4 The relationship fostered by gift exchange was a daily action of the people of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries within England, and the physical objects as monetary gifts were intensifications of everyday life of the English which could both reinforce and complicate social identity. I5 Social ranking, financial status and gender all played or gentility ... The hegemony of the landed orders depended upon much more subtle entities than brute force" (Sharpe Early 170). It was easier to tame the masses with gifts and feasts than an iron fist.

A rare text which describes a lower-class person telling their social superior that they are not giving them an expensive 18 Byrne expounds upon Lisles' inability to retain money while having a generous and trustful spirit (v. 1 23-24). 30 gift, but instead a "token" of his heart can be found in the letters of William, Lord Paget of Beaudesert. 19 Lord Paget, the confidential advisor to the first duke of Somerset, Edward Seymour, Lord Protector for the infant Edward VI from 15471549, writes to Somerset on January 2, 1548-1549: Because the determinacion to renewe giftes of the newe yere was sodayn I cold not prepare suche a newe yeres gifte for your grace as the fashion of the world required me to present to a personage of your estate, and yet consideringe the favour of your grace to be special' towardes me, and my love the reciproque towardes youe, me thought it beste to sende your grace thoughe no riche gyfte yet a token of my herte which wisheth both this and all other yeres hereafter happie and luckye vnto youe.

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