By Susan Stepney, Fiona Polack, Peter Welch
The research of complicated structures is starting to be speedily, and modelling and simulation instruments are an incredible a part of the method. This quantity brings jointly paintings from a multidisciplinary workforce of scientists, from biology and machine technological know-how, who're learning numerous suggestions and functions for modelling and simulating complicated platforms. a standard subject matter rising from a lot of this paintings is an emphasis on validation: how you can have faith laptop simulation is asserting whatever good concerning the advanced real-world area of curiosity.
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Additional info for CoSMoS 2008: Complex Systems Modelling and Simulation
The identification of the group is primarily depended on the animal’s preference to be part of the herd (HBV). The HBV is used to determine a set of animals which form the core of the herd. Once the core group is identified all neighbouring animals in the area are added to form a group which will be evaluated in the next phase. – Once the groups potentially forming herds are identified, the reasoning process continues with the evaluation of the group coherence. This is in fact the top-down reasoning phase which is depicted by steps 4 and 5 in figure 5.
Conservatism will be a major obstacle to the creation of safety-critical complex systems. This will be both in its intuitive, “gut-feeling” form (complex systems are strange architectures implemented using strange algorithms on strange substrates) and in its well-reasoned form (if we can’t predict the worst case behaviour of a particular emergent algo- Engineering Safety-Critical Complex Systems 41 rithm, then we may be forced to eschew it in favour of a conventional, centralised algorithm that we can understand – even if the average performance is much worse).
There are several ways to structure and express a safety case. A plain natural language presentation can be used, or a tabular format, although there is increasing use of explicit argument structure notations such as the Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) (see Kelly in ). Below the level of notation, a safety case must be organised in some systematic way so that the completeness and adequacy of the argument can be assessed. Several different safety argument patterns are presented in . Perhaps the simplest structure is a breakdown by identified hazards – such a case would argue that all hazards had been identified, that all hazards had been adequately mitigated, and that the combined risk from all mitigated hazards was acceptable.