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By Allen I. Holub

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E I expression ; statements In English: statements can go to an empty string followed by an implied end-of-input marker. The replacement of the left-hand side by E (the empty string) occurs whenever the current input symbol doesn't match a legallookahead symbol. 2. The E production stops things from going on forever. 6. A Parse of 1 + 2 statements ~~ expression ~~ expression' term /1 factor I 1 term' I E /1~ + term I factor expression' I E I 2 is a terminal, but not a token. E Note that E is a terminal symbol that is not a token.

Most programming languages are designed so that problems such as the foregoing are not issues. If the tokens don't overlap, you can get by with only one character of pushback. IJX however, can't make assumptions about the structure of the lexemes, so must assume the worst. The push back problem means that you can't use the normal buffered input functions because ungetc () gives you only one character of pushback. 1. Push back a character by pushing it onto the stack, and get the next input ungetc () inappropriate.

Similarly, the structure of each subroutine exactly matches the grammar. 5): expression () { term (); expr_prime () ; E recognized. The E production in expression' Subroutines advance past recognized tokens. ~ PLUS term expression' I E is implemented implicitly when the test on line 37 fails (if it's not a PLUS, it's an E). Note that each subroutine is responsible for advancing past any tokens that are on the equivalent production's right-hand side. 5. h" statements () { /* statements -> expression SEMI * expression SEMI statements */ expression(); if ( match ( SEMI ) ) advance () ; ....

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