By Robert Edgerton
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Extra info for Death Or Glory: The Legacy Of The Crimean War
So many of the ships were steam-driven that as the fleet sailed east toward Sevastopol, the sky literally turned black. Although the allies lacked maps of the Crimea, or any knowledge of its defenses or of the numbers of Russian troops there, they nevertheless forged ahead, managing to land some 30,000 French, 27,000 British, and 7,000 Turkish troops north of Sevastopol without Russian opposition. The sea voyage had actually improved the men's health, and the French and British navies succeeded in landing the troops and supplies despite rough surf.
Ust as the belligerents had aimlessly meandered into the war, now they drifted toward peace. After long discussions, a French-, British-, and Austrian-dominated peace conference in Paris produced a treaty in March 1856. 42 Russia gained an advantage in the Caucasus and the Far East, but Russia's defeat-as the peace treaty was seen in Russia and everywhere else-freed Europe from the specter of Russian expansion. As a result, the Austro-Hungarian Empire grew in strength, and both Germany and Italy were unified.
Also, Turkey's small government, with only about 1,200 employees, did nothing for its citizens' health, welfare, education, or housing. It did not even maintain roads or bridges, and its great mineral wealth lay largely untapped. "' While European countries and Russia grew in economic and military strength, the Ottoman leaders allowed their empire to fall further behind. What is more, largely because of the widespread practice of abortion, the Turkish population declined. Internally, opposition to Ottoman rule grew so alarmingly that in 1831, an Albanian tobacco dealer who had taken the name of Mehmet Ali and become pasha of Egypt rebelled against Ottoman rule and even threatened to march on Constantinople.