By Heiko HüNeke and Thierry Mulder (Eds.)
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Extra resources for Deep-Sea Sediments
Brunner et al. (1999) and Zuffa et al. (2000) described deposits related to hyperpycnal outburst of glacial Lake Missoula (Utah, USA) during late Pleistocene (17–12 ka). The proglacial lake had a volume of 2100 km3 and was drained 40–80 times by the breaking of the moraine front during the melting of the North American ice sheet. The pluvial Lake Bonneville formed 32,000 years ago and probably emptied and filled several times according to wet/dry climatic cycles. Its estimated final drainage 14,500 years ago produced a flood with an estimated peak discharge of 425 Â 103 m3 sÀ 1 (Malde, 1968; Malde and Powers, 1962) that used the present Snake River system in USA.
Erosion structures are frequent at the base of these flows. Reverse grading can also be observed due to the strong velocity gradient between seafloor and the flow body in addition to dispersive pressure acting preferentially on larger particles. 7. Water-dominated flows Water-dominated flows are the results of the destruction of the sediment fabric due to an increase in the interstitial pressure (de Vries Klein, 1982; Middleton and Hampton, 1973). Particles are supported by the upward force of the interstitial fluid (hindered settling).
9. 10. 11. 12. The theoretical prediction of deposits: the velocity matrix 3. 1. 2. V. All rights reserved. 3. 4. Sequence stratigraphy in deep-sea turbidite systems and its controlling factors References 86 115 125 1. 1. Introduction Gravity processes in deep-sea environments have never been directly observed. , 1980, offshore the Var River), in situ measurements (current meters, turbidity meters, particle traps), and they are infrequently recorded on seismic lines. They are mainly interpreted from the nature of their deposits.