By Janus Moller Jensen
This ground-breaking learn of the position of crusading in late-medieval and early sleek Denmark argues that crusading had an enormous influence on political and spiritual existence in Scandinavia throughout the center a while, which persisted lengthy after the Reformation ostensibly must have placed an finish to its viability inside of Protestant Denmark.
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Extra info for Denmark and the Crusades, 1400-1650 (The Northern World)
40 A special crusade liturgy developed after 1187—also in Scandinavia—providing clamors and prayers in support of the Holy Land, masses, processions etc. performed both in monasteries and during regular mass by the entire congregation made 35 J. M. Jensen 2000, pp. 314–23; J. M. Jensen 2004c, pp. 228–35; K. V. Jensen 2002b. 36 J. M. Jensen 2003a; K. V. Jensen 2004, p. 270; K. V. Jensen 2006; Markus 2003, esp. pp. 194–200; Markus 1998; Kolstrup 2002. For the latter see, however, the discussion in Gotfredsen 2003, pp.
Henry the Lion had the Song of Roland translated into Middle High German as part of his ideological propaganda, which intended to present his wars against the Wends as crusades and present him as a new David and Charlemagne, the two characters normally associated with the Roman emperor. Henry thus used crusade ideology in his ambitions for the imperial title of Frederic Barbarossa, who embarked on a similar programme, which included canonizing Charlemagne in his capacity as a champion of the faith, cf.
M. Jensen 2003b, pp. 119–20 for references. I therefore cannot agree with Christopher Tyerman when he suggests that there were no crusades in the twelfth century (Tyerman 1995 and 1998), although I agree with his argument that the legal deÀnitions that modern historians based their deÀnition of crusade upon were only developed towards the end of the twelfth century. For the late middle ages, the problems are somewhat different and I therefore leave this particular aspect of the discussion out of this introduction.