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By G L Pickard and W. J. Emery (Auth.)

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For instance, near the equator the temperature of the water may drop from 25°C at the surface to 5°C at a depth of 1 km, but it may be necessary to go 5000 km north or south from the equator to reach a latitude where the surface temperature has fallen to 5°C. The average vertical temperature gradient (change of temperature per unit distance) in this case is about 5000 times the horizontal one. However, the horizontal variations do exist and therefore the water properties are distributed in three dimensions.

E. g. Fig. e. the values calculated are σ 5 θ 0 or σ 5 10 . In very deep water it is better to calculate sigma values for a greater pressure. g. Fig. 16 which no longer shows the apparent instability in Fig. 15 below 3500 m). This matter is discussed in more detail by Lynn and Reid (1968) and Reid and Lynn (1971). 31 Surface salinity The salinity of the surface waters is basically zonal in distribution (Fig. 9) although not as clearly so as the temperature. The average surface salinity distribution (Fig.

At higher latitudes, the colour changes through green-blue to green in polar regions. Coastal waters are generally greenish. There are two factors contributing to the blue colour of open ocean waters at low latitudes where there is little particulate matter. In deep water if one looks downward from below the surface, as when snorkelling, the light which one sees is mainly that scattered by the molecules of the water. Because the molecules scatter the short-wave (blue) light much more than the long-wave (red) light the colour seen is selectively blue.

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