By Vine Deloria, Raymond J. DeMallie
Reproduced during this two-volume set are hundreds of thousands of treaties and agreements made through Indian nations--with, between others, the Continental Congress; England, Spain, and different international nations; the ephemeral Republic of Texas and the accomplice States; railroad businesses looking rights-of-way throughout Indian land; and different Indian countries. Many have been made with the U.S. yet both remained unratified through Congress or have been rejected by means of the Indians themselves after the Senate amended them unacceptably. Many others are "agreements" made after the official--but rarely de facto--end of U.S. treaty making in 1871.With the aid of bankruptcy introductions that concisely set each one form of treaty in its ancient and political context, those files successfully hint the evolution of yank Indian international relations within the usa.
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Extra resources for Documents of American Indian diplomacy: treaties, agreements, and conventions, 1775-1979, Volume 1
They then gathered a large pile of stones over it, and painted themselves red. Such are their ceremonies of making peace. All the forms of the ceremony are familiar to us, except the pile of stones, and spitting in the hole they had dug. We asked them the meaning of the spitting. They said that they did it in token of spitting out all their spite and revenge, and burying their anger under the ground. (Personal Narrative of James O. Pattie, pp. 5051) When we compare these procedures for making peace, and the moral pledge that Indian diplomacy involved, with the legalese of the European written document, the European treaty pales and appears for what it truly isa business transaction rather than a diplomatic act.
We left Page 8 them, therefore, to infer that the mines belonged to us, and took them at their word. We then lit the pipe, and all the Indians gathered in a circle round the fire. The four chiefs, each in succession made a long speech, in which we could often distinguish the terms Americans and espanola. The men listened with profound attention, occasionally sanctioning what was said by a nod of the head. We then commenced smoking, and the pipe passed twice round the circle. They then dug a hole in the ground in the centre of the circle, and each one spat into it.
Breaking the treaty," as invoked in motion pictures and on television, is generally the lawless act of frontier settlers rather than a deliberate act of the federal government. But more treaties were "broken" by judges and justices who bent the law to accomplish certain political ends than were ever broken by boomers and sooners. Almost every president of the United States has promised, at some time during his term, that he would uphold the Indian treaties, and none has fulfilled the promise when decisions had to be made.