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By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Ocean Studies Board, Committee on Environmental Information for Naval Use

Exact and well timed environmental info promises a tactical virtue to U.S. naval forces in the course of conflict. This record analyzes the present environmental info procedure utilized by the U.S. military and Marine Corps and recommends how one can deal with uncertainty and leverage network-centric working ideas to reinforce the worth of environmental info.

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Dew point Ducting Aerosols, haze, smoke Humidity Icing (aircraft) Lightning Moisture profile Precipitation (type, rate, total) Sunrise/sunset Temperature (air, sea, land) Temperature (vertical profile) Wave height, period, direction, etc. , vertical wind profile) Air turbulence Currents (surface) Inversion rate Ionospheric scintillation Precise time Solar flares Solar flux Temperature (horizontal variation) Anchorages Seafloor composition Reefs Currents (water column) Precipitation (type) 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 Refraction (optical and acoustic) Topography Twilight time Bioluminescence Breaker interval Salinity Temperature (water column profile) Tides (phases, heights, times, currents) Water clarity (turbidity) Breaker direction Breaker height Ice edge Marine mammals Moon angle Moon illumination Moon phase Noise (precipitation) Reverberation effects Sound speed profile Sun angle Time interval synchronization Transmission loss Astronomical time Beach slope Bottom gradient Bottom loss Bottom roughness Breaker type Clutter density Currents (bottom) Frequency stability Noise (shipping) Noise (waves) Shipping traffic Convergence zone Noise (sea ice) Beach trafficability Noise (biological) Surf zone length Surf zone width 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 aNo.

Naval Forces at several levels. Tracing the lines of authority and the flow of money is difficult, and it takes considerable time and experience to grasp how the process works. S. Naval Forces extremely well and is highly regarded in government, industry, and academic worlds. The Oceanographer of the Navy is an unrestricted line officer who normally comes to the assignment after an extensive career as a warfighter, commanding officer, and Navy resource manager. Recent oceanographers have been antisubmarine warfare specialists, nuclear submariners, and computer scientists.

Naval Forces. 34 35 THE VALUE OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION The Chief of Naval Operations has assigned responsibility for meeting environmental information requirements to the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy (N096). S Naval Forces and, as needed, any joint or coalition actions that may be involved in (see Box 2-1). , at the optimal time and place. METOC/PTA/GGI&S knowledge must exist inside the decision-making loop dictated by the speed of command. , rounds on target). • We will employ a doctrinal Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) process, using both dynamic and static data to characterize the battlespace environment and reflect it in the 4D Cube as part of deliberate and contingency military operations.

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