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By Kenneth C Louden; Kenneth Alfred Lambert

Creation -- Language layout standards -- sensible programming -- good judgment programming -- Object-oriented programming -- Syntax -- simple semantics -- info kinds -- keep watch over I - Expressions and statements -- keep an eye on II - approaches and environments -- summary facts kinds and modules -- Formal semantics -- Parallel programming

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F := true; end; Most other languages use a dedicated return statement for returning values from functions. 1 The ISO C Standard (ISO 9899 [1999]) removed this restriction. 4 Causes of Irregularities Why do languages exhibit such irregularities at all? Surely the language designers did not intentionally set out to create strange restrictions, interactions, and confusions. Indeed, many irregularities are case studies in the difficulties of language design. Take, for example, the problem with the semicolon in the C++ class declaration, noted as a lack of uniformity above.

Indd 25 03/01/11 8:59 AM CHAPTER 2 Language Design Criteria What is good programming language design? By what criteria do we judge it? Chapter 1 emphasized human readability and mechanisms for abstraction and complexity control as key requirements for a modern programming language. Judging a language by these criteria is difficult, however, because the success or failure of a language often depends on complex interactions among many language mechanisms. Defining the “success” or “failure” of a programming language is also complex; for now, let’s say that a language is successful if it satisfies any or all of the following criteria: 1.

Indeed, many irregularities are case studies in the difficulties of language design. Take, for example, the problem with the semicolon in the C++ class declaration, noted as a lack of uniformity above. Since the designers of C++ attempted to deviate from C as little as possible, this irregularity was an essential byproduct of the need to be compatible with C. The lack of generality of functions in C and Pascal was similarly unavoidable, since both of these languages opt for a simple stackbased runtime environment (as explained in Chapter 10).

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